China Policy Institute: Analysis



The Chinese Super League: A Footballing Vanity Project on Steroids

Written by David Prentice.

Founded in 2004, the Chinese Super League consists of 16 teams; Guizhou Zhicheng, Liaoning F.C., Jiangsu Suning, Beijing Guo’an, and Guangzhou R&F make up just five of these clubs of which little is known outside the Middle Kingdom. Whilst they are hardly well known, established footballing names, the Chinese Super League (CSL) is perhaps currently the richest footballing league in the world. A recent explosion of spending power reaching mind-numbing proportions is putting the CSL firmly on the map, and big name players more than ever are starting to turn their attention to Chinese cash. Continue reading “The Chinese Super League: A Footballing Vanity Project on Steroids”

International Sporting Mega-Events in China since the 1980s

Written by Marcus P. Chu.

Any international sporting mega-event refers to a games in which numbers of athletes from at least two countries participate. Given that the world society often attaches great importance to the event preparations and implementation, the governments of the hosting cities in general are willing to lavish funds on (1) building athlete villages, (2) constructing sports stadiums, (3) staging torch relays, (4) producing opening and closing ceremonies, (5) renovating urban areas and (6) upgrading hotels and transportation infrastructure. Chinese metropolises, before Hu Jintao stepped down, were loyal followers of this extravagant culture, changing only after Xi Jinping’s formal accession to power in late 2012.     Continue reading “International Sporting Mega-Events in China since the 1980s”

Soft Power, East Asian Sport and the Delayed ‘Neo-Wilsonian’ Renaissance.

Written by James Mangan.

 … the Triple East Asian Olympic Games … are the precursors of Asian mega events to come: sooner rather than later. The momentum … will increase year by year. The traction of the Asian engine grows increasingly more powerful and there should no doubts in Western minds that these events collectively are ascendant symbols of Asia Rising; differentially but emphatically across its nations – politically, economically and culturally…[1] Continue reading “Soft Power, East Asian Sport and the Delayed ‘Neo-Wilsonian’ Renaissance.”

China’s Depoliticisation of Sport May Make a U-Turn.

Written by Ping Wu.

When Fancy Bears hackers started publishing the names and medical records of athletes granted Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUE) by the World Anti-Doping Agency on 13 September 2016, most of the named athletes were American or British. The news about Fancy Bears’ hacking was rapidly disseminated on social media in China. Given that no Chinese athlete was named by the hackers, the news was well received in China. What is interesting is the immediate reactions of most Chinese netizens who had read the story. The most common comments were along the lines of “Shame on you, drug cheats!” and “No wonder Great Britain beat us in the medal table at the Rio Olympics.” Chinese netizens’ criticism of Great Britain, however, also revealed quite clearly their bitter disappointment with China’s Olympic performance in Rio. Continue reading “China’s Depoliticisation of Sport May Make a U-Turn.”

Xi Jinping’s vision for Chinese football

Written by Simon Chadwick.

It is now two years since President Xi Jinping announced his vision for the Chinese sports industry: to create a domestic economy worth $850 billion by 2025. The vision is epic in scale: the most generous estimates of the current global industry are around Xi’s target for China. Continue reading “Xi Jinping’s vision for Chinese football”

China’s financial muscle makes its mark on the global sport industry

Written by Simon Chadwick.

The Chinese economy has been growing at break-neck pace for the past three decades. It is the largest in the world by some measures and, as we all know, the Chinese sell the world everything from electronics to iron and steel.

But in one industry the Chinese have been rather slow out of the blocks – sport. The 2008 Olympics may well have been a breath-taking extravaganza, but the country has failed to take full advantage of the exceptional facilities that remain at Beijing’s Olympic Park. The same story is true at Shanghai’s F1 circuit, a US$450m grandiose folly that routinely attracts significantly less than full capacity crowds.

If ever a sport was symbolic of a nation’s sporting plight though, then it is football in China. The country may well be a global powerhouse but it has singularly failed at playing the global game. One poor World Cup appearance in 2002 aside, China has made no perceptible impact on the world’s favourite sport. Historically beset by corruption, poorly managed and often playing second-fiddle domestically to basketball, football is a persistent drag on China’s global ambitions.

Their attitude to football is changing though, especially as rumour has it that the country’s president, Xi Jinping, is a football fan. A purge of corrupt officials has been taking place, China’s football leagues are modernising and the feeling in some circles is that a Chinese World Cup bid is imminent. More significantly, we have recently seen growing corporate interest in football – both domestically and overseas.

Last year, as the Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba was being readied for its record-breaking IPO, owner Jack Ma purchased 50% of Guangzhou Evergrande Football Club for US$192m. Somewhat enigmatically, Ma at the time explained the purchase by saying, “At Alibaba our strategy is health and happiness. Investing in soccer is investing in happiness.”

In recent weeks, Ma has been joined in football by his countryman and fellow billionaire, Wang Jianlin, chairman of the Dalian Wanda property group. Wang has just purchased a 20% stake in Spain’s Atletico Madrid for US$52m. His stated intention is to build a global entertainment business that will stretch from China to Hollywood.

Government backing

In spite of this apparently sudden interest in sport by corporate China, nothing happens in the PRC unless there is close coordination with the government. It is not a coincidence therefore that in December 2014 the Chinese government announced a major investment programme in sport.

By 2025 the Chinese government is aiming to create a sports industry worth US$800 billion, which will account for 1% of GDP. This is an ambitious target, as the industry currently accounts for only 0.6% of GDP. Some critics believe that such a prediction is wildly optimistic, the total size of the global sport industry currently being only US$145 billion. But given the Chinese government’s success so far in what it puts its hand to, you’d be remiss to dismiss it. And the likes of Ma and Wang are clearly well-positioned to take advantage of developments.

Thus far, China’s sporting development has been dominated by the state, which has owned and run all sports. This has restricted both the commercial and the international development of Chinese sport. However, following last year’s announcement, the (politically approved) route to market is now being established. The arrival of Wang at Atletico and Ma at Guangzhou is a move which we should expect to be replicated across the world in the coming years.

A growing influence

A look back at the Chinese government’s attitude to sport shows China’s latest sporting initiative was entirely predictable. In fact, it has been fermenting for some time. In addition to the re-launch of Brand China which the 2008 Olympics represented, the country has been exerting a subtle yet pervasive influence on sport across the world.

For instance, China’s strategy of “stadium diplomacy” has seen new venues being created across the world, gifts presented to countries in return for preferential access to much-needed natural resources. The mega-event bidding continues apace too, with Beijing facing a decision later this year on its bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.

While China’s commitment to building a sustainable sport industry is admirable, the country’s officials are rather prone to exaggeration. As such, it remains to be seen whether the size and scale of the industry they envisage is in any way achievable by 2025.

Obstacles to overcome

If there is a chance of achieving the 2025 target, then there are many obstacles to overcome. Corruption is still endemic in many Chinese sports, most notably match-fixing. And competition for space and resources often dictates that sports requiring large areas for games, such as football, often lose out.

It also remains to be seen how the growing Chinese middle class responds to the promotion of sport. Many of them are now playing golf and tennis, but not with the intention of achieving Grand Slam glory. Rather, these sports are often a form of conspicuous consumption and a basis for networking.

While the country’s new-found wealth is providing the money for growth, China’s sport industry is still in a fledgling, even fragile, state. Becoming a global superpower in football is normally developed not bought. Still, China’s attempt to create the 21st century’s biggest sport industry should make for an epic production.

The ConversationSimon Chadwick is Professor of Sport Business Strategy at Coventry University. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. Image Credit: CC by b cheng/Flickr

Blog at

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: